AMP is an open-source framework that enables mobile web pages to load quickly. It was rolled out by Google back in late 2015 to help web publishers improve their loading speed even with ads running on their site. This framework makes it simple to achieve optimal results without resorting to intensive optimizations that can be implemented wrongly.
AMP is comprised of three parts; the markup language, the resource handling, and the content delivery network (CDN). The markup is similar to standard HTML, which brings the learning curve down by a lot for web developers. How the framework works is that it loads elements above the fold before the user starts to become impatient and back out from the website.